Exports of fruits and vegetables from India have been very prosperous over the last few decades. India is the second largest producer of fruits in the world after China and is known as the world’s fruit basket due to its size, production, and productivity. India’s diverse climate makes it possible to grow many fresh fruits and vegetables. Mangoes, bananas, papayas, and guavas are the most common fruits produced in India. Also, India has the most ginger and okra among vegetables and ranks second in potato, onion, cauliflower, brinjal, cabbage, etc.
Many agroclimatic zones in India enable the cultivation of various crops, including fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices, plantation crops, root and tuber crops, and medicinal and aromatic crops.
The area and production of Indian fruits and vegetables
The data in Table 1 shows that area and production of horticultural crops is increased from 26.48 million ha and 320.47 million MT to 27.48 million ha and 334.60 million MT during the last 14 years. These statistics show great potential in income and foreign exchange earnings and export of fruits and vegetables from India.
|Total Horticulture||2019-20 (Final)||2020-21 (Final)||2021-22 (1st Adv. Est.)|
|Area (in Million Ha)||26.48||27.48||27.56|
|Production (in Million Tonne)||320.47||334.60||333.25|
fruits and vegetables exported from India
The export of fruits and vegetable from India have been growing slowly in recent years. This rate has recently increased slightly because of the pandemic of Corona and the global lockdown. Exporting fruits and vegetables from India has been revived since Corona’s period ended.
Also, productivity and quality have increased due to improvements in cold chain infrastructure, research, modern post-harvest technologies, favorable government policies, and APEDA initiatives.
Fruits and vegetables exported from India can be either fresh/chilled or processed. This article focuses on the export of Indian fresh fruits and vegetables.
Data in Table 2 indicates that India exported 765.2 million dollars worth of fresh fruits and 721.47 million worth of fresh vegetables during 2020-21. Despite the global lockdown and problems Corona caused for exports, these statistics are promising. Additionally, based on the available statistics, it can be seen that India exported fresh fruits worth 876.4 million dollars in 2021-22, which indicates renewed prosperity and better export performance.
major fruits and producing fruit states in India
The major fruits grown in India, According to data statistics, are banana (31.53% of the total area under fruits), mango (19.75%), and citrus (13.74%). The other fruits grown include papaya, Guava, Grapes, watermelon, Pomegranate, apple, jackfruit, pineapple, muskmelon, and others. Citrus consists of lime/lemon, mandarin, sweet orange (Mosambi), and another citrus. The total produced citrus in India is 14150 million MT, and banana and mango are 32454 and 20336 million MT, respectively.
There are many major producing states in India, including Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, West Bengal, and others. According to the area under fruit in India, Maharashtra ranks first, followed by Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, and Gujarat.
Export of fruits and vegetables from India, statistics, and percent
India is also a major exporter of fruits to the world. The vast production base offers India tremendous opportunities for export. During 2021-22, The export of fruits and vegetables from India was worth Rs 1141241.52 crores for 3376248.80 MT of fruit and vegetables.
Onion, grapes, bananas, and pomegranates account for the larger portion of fruits exported from India. The fruit has a great demand in the international market. Therefore, they are one of the potential earners of foreign exchange.
It shows that chilled or fresh onion ranked first with 1537496.85 MT and worth Rs 343216.34 crores accounting for (30%) of the total export of fruits from India, followed by fresh grapes with 263075.62 MT and worth Rs 230216.40 crores (20%).
These two fruits, onion, and grape together, contribute about half of the fruits exported from India in 2021-22. In comparison, bananas and pomegranates contribute 10.3% and 6.03%, respectively.
Mango export from India
Mango is one of the most important fruits produced in India, and it is the country’s national fruit. Mango exports from India account for a large portion of India’s exports every year.
The Indian mango comes in a variety of shapes, sizes, and colors, all of which are famous for their flavor and aroma. Due to its sweet, refreshing, and aromatic characteristics, it has been commercialized worldwide.
The mango is the “King of Fruits,” also known as the “tropical peach.” More than 80 countries cultivate mangoes for commercial purposes. In spite of this, India is the world’s leading mango producer. India produces 40% of the world’s mango production and contributes nearly 50% of its area to cultivation.
The area and production of Indian mango
Among the major mango-producing states in India, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, and Gujarat contribute the majority. Uttar Pradesh, with 4806.5 Thousand MT and 279.25 Thousand HA, is the leading producing state of mango and contributes 23.75% of total production in India, followed by Andhra Pradesh with 4517.93 Thousand MT and 376.49 Thousand ha (15%) and Karnataka with 1646.76 Thousand MT and 172.79 Thousand ha (10%)
Decline mango export from India
Mango exports from India have declined in recent years. In the past years, mango accounted for a high share of fruit production and export in India, but, In recent years, the production and export of mangoes from India have decreased. The main reasons for this decrease were the coronavirus epidemic, the global lockdown, and hot weather. Also, there are various forms of mango exports from India, including fresh and dried mangoes, pulp squash, jams, jellies, marmalades, and sliced mangoes. Exports of fresh/dried mangoes from India have decreased significantly, while jam/jelly/marmalade exports have increased. As a result, the export market for mangoes is shifting from fresh to processed goods.
Mango export destinations from India
|1||U Arab EMTs||16567.22||14286.80|
The following table shows the Top 10 Export Destinations for Indian Mangos in 2021-2022. It shows that U Arab EMTs were the largest export market for fresh mangoes contributing about 27.88%, worth Rs 14472.70 crores for 12923.69 MT, followed by the UK (10.93%) with worth Rs 7337.83 crores for 3376.89 MT in the second row and Qatar (6.88%) with worth Rs 2332.75 crores for 2116.64 MT in the third row.
Export of grapes from India
The grape is one of India’s most important fruits. Grapes (Vitis sp.) are an essential fruit crop in India and belong to the Vitaceae family. It has adapted to peninsular India’s subtropical climate as a temperate crop.
According to the latest forecast, Indian grape production will increase by 26 percent to 2.9 million MT, similar to pre-pandemic levels. Several factors have contributed to this increase in production, including good weather, improved labor availability during pruning and harvesting, and reduced restrictions during Covid-19 season production periods. Almost a month has been lost in grape pruning and harvest in the last marketing year.
Industry sources report that good recovery will result in the natural standard of the grapes, regardless of erratic rains. This resulted in a significant increase in grape exports from India.
The area and production of Indian grape
The most important grape-growing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Mizoram. The highest productivity in the country is in Maharashtra, which accounts for more than 82.56% of total production with 2399.72 Thousand MT and 114.89 Thousand HA, followed by Karnataka (11.70%) with 821.79 Thousand MT and 32.47 Thousand HA in the second row.
Grape export destinations from India
|5||U Arab EMTs||16459.07||15453.78|
Grapes are one of the most important exports from India. The table showed the major export destinations for grapes in 2021-22. According to the data, Netherland ranked first with 43.80% of the fresh grape market, followed by Bangladesh (15.44%) and Russia (9.50%). These statistics show grapes exported from India in large quantities.